Two flaws in tax cut debate: Deficit reduction & trickle-down economics Friday, Dec 1 2017 

Image result for make america ignorant again

.

It takes only two things to keep people in chains:
The ignorance of the oppressed
and the treachery of their leaders.

——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————–

Cutting federal taxes is a good idea. Contrary to popular belief, federal taxes do not fund federal spending. Even if all federal tax collections were $0, the federal government could continue spending, forever.

The reason is that the federal government, unlike state and local governments, is Monetarily Sovereign. It is sovereign over its currency, the dollar. The federal government never can run short of dollars, which it creates, ad hoc, every time it pays a bill.

The sole effect of federal taxes is to reduce the economy’s money supply, a rather dubious accomplishment, since a growing economy requires a growing money supply.

That is why cutting taxes grows an economy. This brings us to the first flaw in the tax cut debate:

Debate Flaw #1. The desire to reduce or even eliminate federal deficits.

This clearly is the strangest idea since homeopathy. There is zero credible evidence that federal deficits are “unsustainable” (the favorite word of deficit attackers), and there is massive evidence that deficits are necessary to grow the economy.

For example: U.S. depressions tend to come on the heels of federal surpluses.

1804-1812: U. S. Federal Debt reduced 48%. Depression began 1807.
1817-1821: U. S. Federal Debt reduced 29%. Depression began 1819.
1823-1836: U. S. Federal Debt reduced 99%. Depression began 1837.
1852-1857: U. S. Federal Debt reduced 59%. Depression began 1857.
1867-1873: U. S. Federal Debt reduced 27%. Depression began 1873.
1880-1893: U. S. Federal Debt reduced 57%. Depression began 1893.
1920-1930: U. S. Federal Debt reduced 36%. Depression began 1929.

There also is zero evidence that federal deficits lead to hyperinflations, which actually are caused not by “money printing, as so often is claimed, but rather by shortages of goods and/or services.

The U.S. never has had a hyperinflation, despite gigantic past deficits.

There even is zero evidence that deficits are a prime cause of inflations. Since America has gone off its most recent gold standard (1971), the prime cause of inflation has been oil prices, i.e. oil shortages.

The GOP’s various tax-cut plans are truly awful, and are nothing more than a “We-have-to-pass-something, – anything” bit of political desperation. So, there is enough to hate about the plans without resorting to false objections based on “excessive deficits.”

Debate Flaw #2. The notion that “trickle-down” economics benefits America. 

The so-called “trickle-down” economics hypothesis boils down to this “wrong-on-its-face” notion: If you give the rich more money, they will hire more people and give these people higher salaries. 

In the entire history of human existence, that never has been true. It is a con-job by the rich. They want you to have the pitiful hope that the rich will be kind to you, if only you make them richer.

The fact is: If you give the rich more money, they will have even greater power over you, and will use that power to provide you with the fewest jobs, at the least pay they can get away with.

If, as the GOP tax planners want, you cut taxes on business, those dollars will not go primarily to increases in payroll, but rather to shareholders and to executive bonuses. The last 10 years have proven that increased business profitability does not translate into increased payrolls.

Why do you think the stock market had been zooming in anticipation of the GOP tax bill passing?  Certainly not because businesses will increase pay scales.

If anything, businesses will use the dollars to automate, thereby reducing the number of good-paying jobs.

So rather than the proven-to-be-wrong trickle-down economics, how about the mathematically-certain-to-be-correct trickle-up economics?

How about giving the middle- and lower-income groups more financial support, which would allow them to buy more goods and services, thus benefitting the rich owners of business?

Why try to help businesses directly, if consumers don’t have enough money to buy from those businesses?  Doesn’t it make more sense to help consumers buy more, and allow that additional buying to trickle up to business owners?

The Ten Steps to Prosperity (below) does exactly that. The Steps are designed to put more money into consumers’ pockets, so that they can spend, spend, spend.

The most common measure of the economy is Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the formula for which is:

GDP = Federal Spending + Non-federal Spending – Net Imports

Notice the word, Spending? Increasing Federal Spending to support the poor and middle-income groups will increase Non-federal Spending — two of the three factors that move GDP.

Money is the way modern economies is measured. By definition, a large economy has a larger money supply than does a small economy. Therefore, a growing economy requires a growing supply of money. QED

The graph below shows the essentially parallel paths of GDP vs. perhaps the most comprehensive measure of the money supply, Domestic Non-Financial Debt:

One could argue that money begets production or that production begets money, and both would be correct. The point is that money supply (i.e. debt) and GDP go hand in hand.

Similarly, reduced debt growth results in reduced economic growth.

In summary:

The GOP tax “reform” plans focus on exactly the wrong goals: Deficit reduction and trickle-down economics.

The correct goals are: Deficit spending increases and trickle-up economics.

Rodger Malcolm Mitchell
Monetary Sovereignty
Twitter: @rodgermitchell; Search #monetarysovereignty
Facebook: Rodger Malcolm Mitchell

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The most important problems in economics involve the excessive income/wealth/power Gaps between the have-mores and the have-less.

Wide Gaps negatively affect poverty, health and longevity, education, housing, law and crime, war, leadership, ownership, bigotry, supply and demand, taxation, GDP, international relations, scientific advancement, the environment, human motivation and well-being, and virtually every other issue in economics.

Implementation of The Ten Steps To Prosperity can narrow the Gaps:

Ten Steps To Prosperity:
1. ELIMINATE FICA (Ten Reasons to Eliminate FICA )
Although the article lists 10 reasons to eliminate FICA, there are two fundamental reasons:
*FICA is the most regressive tax in American history, widening the Gap by punishing the low and middle-income groups, while leaving the rich untouched, and
*The federal government, being Monetarily Sovereign, neither needs nor uses FICA to support Social Security and Medicare.
2. FEDERALLY FUNDED MEDICARE — PARTS A, B & D, PLUS LONG TERM CARE — FOR EVERYONE (H.R. 676, Medicare for All )
This article addresses the questions:
*Does the economy benefit when the rich can afford better health care than can the rest of Americans?
*Aside from improved health care, what are the other economic effects of “Medicare for everyone?”
*How much would it cost taxpayers?
*Who opposes it?”
3. PROVIDE A MONTHLY ECONOMIC BONUS TO EVERY MAN, WOMAN AND CHILD IN AMERICA (similar to Social Security for All) (The JG (Jobs Guarantee) vs the GI (Guaranteed Income) vs the EB (Economic Bonus)) Or institute a reverse income tax.
This article is the fifth in a series about direct financial assistance to Americans:

Why Modern Monetary Theory’s Employer of Last Resort is a bad idea. Sunday, Jan 1 2012
MMT’s Job Guarantee (JG) — “Another crazy, rightwing, Austrian nutjob?” Thursday, Jan 12 2012
Why Modern Monetary Theory’s Jobs Guarantee is like the EU’s euro: A beloved solution to the wrong problem. Tuesday, May 29 2012
“You can’t fire me. I’m on JG” Saturday, Jun 2 2012

Economic growth should include the “bottom” 99.9%, not just the .1%, the only question being, how best to accomplish that. Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) favors giving everyone a job. Monetary Sovereignty (MS) favors giving everyone money. The five articles describe the pros and cons of each approach.
4. FREE EDUCATION (INCLUDING POST-GRAD) FOR EVERYONE Five reasons why we should eliminate school loans
Monetarily non-sovereign State and local governments, despite their limited finances, support grades K-12. That level of education may have been sufficient for a largely agrarian economy, but not for our currently more technical economy that demands greater numbers of highly educated workers.
Because state and local funding is so limited, grades K-12 receive short shrift, especially those schools whose populations come from the lowest economic groups. And college is too costly for most families.
An educated populace benefits a nation, and benefitting the nation is the purpose of the federal government, which has the unlimited ability to pay for K-16 and beyond.
5. SALARY FOR ATTENDING SCHOOL
Even were schooling to be completely free, many young people cannot attend, because they and their families cannot afford to support non-workers. In a foundering boat, everyone needs to bail, and no one can take time off for study.
If a young person’s “job” is to learn and be productive, he/she should be paid to do that job, especially since that job is one of America’s most important.
6. ELIMINATE FEDERAL TAXES ON BUSINESS
Businesses are dollar-transferring machines. They transfer dollars from customers to employees, suppliers, shareholders and the federal government (the later having no use for those dollars). Any tax on businesses reduces the amount going to employees, suppliers and shareholders, which diminishes the economy. Ultimately, all business taxes reduce your personal income.
7. INCREASE THE STANDARD INCOME TAX DEDUCTION, ANNUALLY. (Refer to this.) Federal taxes punish taxpayers and harm the economy. The federal government has no need for those punishing and harmful tax dollars. There are several ways to reduce taxes, and we should evaluate and choose the most progressive approaches.
Cutting FICA and business taxes would be a good early step, as both dramatically affect the 99%. Annual increases in the standard income tax deduction, and a reverse income tax also would provide benefits from the bottom up. Both would narrow the Gap.
8. TAX THE VERY RICH (THE “.1%) MORE, WITH HIGHER PROGRESSIVE TAX RATES ON ALL FORMS OF INCOME. (TROPHIC CASCADE)
There was a time when I argued against increasing anyone’s federal taxes. After all, the federal government has no need for tax dollars, and all taxes reduce Gross Domestic Product, thereby negatively affecting the entire economy, including the 99.9%.
But I have come to realize that narrowing the Gap requires trimming the top. It simply would not be possible to provide the 99.9% with enough benefits to narrow the Gap in any meaningful way. Bill Gates reportedly owns $70 billion. To get to that level, he must have been earning $10 billion a year. Pick any acceptable Gap (1000 to 1?), and the lowest paid American would have to receive $10 million a year. Unreasonable.
9. FEDERAL OWNERSHIP OF ALL BANKS (Click The end of private banking and How should America decide “who-gets-money”?)
Banks have created all the dollars that exist. Even dollars created at the direction of the federal government, actually come into being when banks increase the numbers in checking accounts. This gives the banks enormous financial power, and as we all know, power corrupts — especially when multiplied by a profit motive.
Although the federal government also is powerful and corrupted, it does not suffer from a profit motive, the world’s most corrupting influence.
10. INCREASE FEDERAL SPENDING ON THE MYRIAD INITIATIVES THAT BENEFIT AMERICA’S 99.9% (Federal agencies)Browse the agencies. See how many agencies benefit the lower- and middle-income/wealth/ power groups, by adding dollars to the economy and/or by actions more beneficial to the 99.9% than to the .1%.
Save this reference as your primer to current economics. Sadly, much of the material is not being taught in American schools, which is all the more reason for you to use it.

The Ten Steps will grow the economy, and narrow the income/wealth/power Gap between the rich and you.

MONETARY SOVEREIGNTY

Why the House budget committee voted to screw you Tuesday, Mar 15 2016 

Twitter: @rodgermitchell; Search #monetarysovereignty
Facebook: Rodger Malcolm Mitchell

============================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

Here are some quotes from the notorious Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget (CRFB), the rich man’s group.  These are the people who tell you the federal deficit and debt are “unsustainable,” without ever explaining why.

Statement by Maya MacGuineas, President of the Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget on the budget plan released today by The House Budget Committee
March 15, 2016

Chairman Price should be commended for releasing a plan that calls for reversing the growth of our national debt, reforming entitlement programs, improving the budget process, and facilitating concrete action to begin reducing deficits.

In conservative speak, “reforming entitlement programs” means cutting Medicare, cutting Medicaid and cutting Social Security benefits.

Does that sound like a good idea to you?

Since the richest 1% of Americans don’t care about those benefits, the CRFB deems them unimportant. Do you?

House Budget Committee Chairman Tom Price (R-GA) today released the FY 2017 House budget resolution to formally kick off the Congressional budget process.

The budget proposes about $6.5 trillion of spending reductions, which along with a war draw down, economic effects, and interest would lead to $7.9 trillion of total savings — enough to balance the budget by 2026.

While balancing budgets are good for states, counties, cities, businesses, you and me — all of which are monetarily non-sovereign — balanced budgets are an economic disaster when our Monetarily Sovereign federal government does it.

(Conservatives don’t want you to understand the vast differences between federal financing and your personal financing.)

Every depression in U.S. history, and nearly every recession, has been introduced with deficit reductions and cured with deficit increases. Here is why:

–Federal deficit reduction reduces the U.S. money supply, which starves a growing economy of money.
–Federal deficits put spending dollars into the pockets of consumers, who use those dollars to grow businesses and to increase wages and employment.

The budget would put debt on a clear downward path, falling from 76 percent of GDP in 2016 to 57 percent by 2026.

As you can see in the “Recession Clock” (chart below), reductions in spending as a % of GDP cause recessions. Then, growth in spending as a % of GDP cures recessions.

The budget generates the bulk of its savings from health care and other mandatory spending programs.

This includes $2 trillion of savings from repealing the coverage expansions in the Affordable Care Act (while leaving the spending cuts and essentially the tax increases in place), $1 trillion from block granting Medicaid and capping its growth, and $449 billion from Medicare savings policies, including reforming cost-sharing rules and switching to a premium support system in 2024.

There you see a litany of “screw the poor and middle classes” ideas, courtesy of the conservatives.

The Affordable Care Act protects those who least can afford health care coverage. That is the primary reason why the conservatives repeatedly vote to eliminate ACA.

Block granting Medicaid means that instead of the federal government paying for Medicaid, the government would give the states “block grants,” and the states would pay. Of course, the block grants would be insufficient — that is the whole purpose — so the states would have to cut coverages to the poor.

Capping the growth of Medicaid means that as prices rise, benefits would fall.

“Reforming” cost sharing rules is conservative speak for: “You pay more; the government pays less.”

The “premium support system” is a Rube Goldbergian process similar in nature to block grants, except it relates to premiums received by insurance companies. The private sector would support federal savings — similar to a tax.

The budget also calls for $1.5 trillion of savings from other mandatory programs, citing policies such as block granting food stamps and reforming housing, education, and job training programs as ways to get there.

In real language, the conservatives propose cutting food stamps, housing assistance, education assistance and job training programs. Who would you say that hurts, the 1% or the 99%?

Here is where the “savings” come from:

Policy Changes in the House FY 2017 Budget
Budget Category 2017-2026 Savings
Affordable Care Act        $2,013 billion
Medicaid and Other Health       $1,028 billion
Medicare (net)       $449 billion
Social Security       $14 billion
Other Mandatory       $1,471 billion
Discretionary and Highway       $690 billion
Revenue       $0 billion
Interest       $818 billion
Subtotal, Policy Savings        $6,482 billion
Economic Effect of Deficit Reduction       $241 billion
Economic Effect of ACA Repeal       $254 billion
Claimed Savings with Economic Effects
$6,977 billion

And there it is: No tax increases (The rich hate tax increases but love cuts to your social benefits), and billions deducted from Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, highway repair, and “other” (those food stamps, housing, education, and job training programs we mentioned).

These people even have the gall to predict that the elimination of “Obamacare” benefits would grow the economy (“Economic Effect of ACA Repeal”).

If you are within the upper 1% income / wealth / power group, and you don’t give a fig about what happens to the rest of the people in America, you should vote conservative. This is the plan for you.

It widens the Gap between the rich and the rest, exactly what the rich want.

Otherwise, repeat after me:

“Deficit reduction is good when states, counties, cities, businesses and I do it.
Deficit reduction is bad when the federal government does it, because it reduces the nation’s money supply.”

Repeat it ten times, or as often as necessary, until you understand it. Click this link: Monetarily Sovereign for further infomation.

Rodger Malcolm Mitchell
Monetary Sovereignty

 

===================================================================================
Ten Steps to Prosperity:
1. Eliminate FICA (Click here)
2. Federally funded Medicare — parts A, B & D plus long term nursing care — for everyone (Click here)
3. Provide an Economic Bonus to every man, woman and child in America, and/or every state a per capita Economic Bonus. (Click here) Or institute a reverse income tax.
4. Free education (including post-grad) for everyone. Click here
5. Salary for attending school (Click here)
6. Eliminate corporate taxes (Click here)
7. Increase the standard income tax deduction annually Click here
8. Tax the very rich (.1%) more, with higher, progressive tax rates on all forms of income. (Click here)
9. Federal ownership of all banks (Click here and here)

10. Increase federal spending on the myriad initiatives that benefit America’s 99% (Click here)

The Ten Steps will grow the economy, and narrow the income/wealth/power Gap between the rich and you.
========================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

10 Steps to Economic Misery: (Click here:)
1. Maintain or increase the FICA tax..
2. Spread the myth Social Security, Medicare and the U.S. government are insolvent.
3. Cut federal employment in the military, post office, other federal agencies.
4. Broaden the income tax base so more lower income people will pay.
5. Cut financial assistance to the states.
6. Spread the myth federal taxes pay for federal spending.
7. Allow banks to trade for their own accounts; save them when their investments go sour.
8. Never prosecute any banker for criminal activity.
9. Nominate arch conservatives to the Supreme Court.
10. Reduce the federal deficit and debt

THE RECESSION CLOCK

Recessions begin an average of 2 years after the blue line first dips below zero. A common phenomenon is for the line briefly to dip below zero, then rise above zero, before falling dramatically below zero. There was a brief dip below zero in 2015, followed by another dip – the familiar pre-recession pattern.
Recessions are cured by a rising red line.

Monetary Sovereignty

Vertical gray bars mark recessions.

As the federal deficit growth lines drop, we approach recession, which will be cured only when the growth lines rise. Increasing federal deficit growth (aka “stimulus”) is necessary for long-term economic growth.

————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————-

Mitchell’s laws:
•Those, who do not understand the differences between Monetary Sovereignty and monetary non-sovereignty, do not understand economics.
•Any monetarily NON-sovereign government — be it city, county, state or nation — that runs an ongoing trade deficit, eventually will run out of money.
•The more federal budgets are cut and taxes increased, the weaker an economy becomes..

•No nation can tax itself into prosperity, nor grow without money growth.
•Cutting federal deficits to grow the economy is like applying leeches to cure anemia.
•A growing economy requires a growing supply of money (GDP = Federal Spending + Non-federal Spending + Net Exports)
•Deficit spending grows the supply of money
•The limit to federal deficit spending is an inflation that cannot be cured with interest rate control.
•The limit to non-federal deficit spending is the ability to borrow.

Liberals think the purpose of government is to protect the poor and powerless from the rich and powerful. Conservatives think the purpose of government is to protect the rich and powerful from the poor and powerless.

•The single most important problem in economics is the Gap between rich and the rest..
•Austerity is the government’s method for widening
the Gap between rich and poor.
•Until the 99% understand the need for federal deficits, the upper 1% will rule.
•Everything in economics devolves to motive, and the motive is the Gap between the rich and the rest..

MONETARY SOVEREIGNTY

–The coming unnecessary, preventable recession: An exercise in ignorance Friday, Oct 2 2015 

Twitter: @rodgermitchell; Search #monetarysovereignty
Facebook: Rodger Malcolm Mitchell

Mitchell’s laws:
•Those, who do not understand the differences between Monetary Sovereignty and monetary non-sovereignty, do not understand economics.
•Any monetarily NON-sovereign government — be it city, county, state or nation — that runs an ongoing trade deficit, eventually will run out of money.
•The more federal budgets are cut and taxes increased, the weaker an economy becomes. .
Liberals think the purpose of government is to protect the poor and powerless from the rich and powerful. Conservatives think the purpose of government is to protect the rich and powerful from the poor and powerless.
•The single most important problem in economics is
the Gap between rich and poor.
•Austerity is the government’s method for widening
the Gap between rich and poor.
•Until the 99% understand the need for federal deficits, the upper 1% will rule.
•Everything in economics devolves to motive, and the motive is the Gap between the rich and the rest..

======================================================================================================================================================================================================================

Since 1971, when the U.S. government made itself Monetarily Sovereign (i.e. disconnected from gold), America has had six unnecessary, preventable recessions — an average of one every six years.

It has been an exercise in ignorance.

And now, as our nation drifts toward yet another unnecessary, preventable recession, let me summarize for you, some of the facts this blog has presented over the years:

1. U.S. depressions tend to come on the heels of federal surpluses.
1817-1821: U. S. Federal Debt reduced 29%. Depression began 1819.
1823-1836: U. S. Federal Debt reduced 99%. Depression began 1837.
1852-1857: U. S. Federal Debt reduced 59%. Depression began 1857.
1867-1873: U. S. Federal Debt reduced 27%. Depression began 1873.
1880-1893: U. S. Federal Debt reduced 57%. Depression began 1893.
1920-1930: U. S. Federal Debt reduced 36%. Depression began 1929.

2. Recessions tend to come on the heels of reductions in federal debt/money growth (i.e. deficits)(See graph, below), while debt/money growth has increased when recessions were being cured.

Tax increases reduce debt/money growth. No government can tax itself into prosperity, but many government’s tax themselves into recession.. Spending decreases also reduce money growth.

Reductions in federal debt growth lead to inflation

Recessions repeatedly come on the heels of deficit growth reductions, and are cured with deficit growth increases.

3. The size of the above-mentioned reductions in federal debt/money growth, compared with the total economy (Gross Domestic Product), provides a clue to the arrival of an unnecessary, preventable recession:

Monetary Sovereignty

Recessions come after the blue line drops below zero.

Monetary Sovereignty

4. The greatest threat to the U.S. economy is not inflation, the federal debt or the federal deficit, but rather the increasing Gap between the rich and the rest.

Monetary Sovereignty
(0 = perfect equality; everyone earns the same amount. 1 = perfect inequality; one person earns everything.)

5. To prevent future recessions, we suggest the Ten Steps to Prosperity:

1. Eliminate FICA (Click here)
2. Federally funded Medicare — parts A, B & D plus long term nursing care — for everyone (Click here)
3. Provide an Economic Bonus to every man, woman and child in America, and/or every state a per capita Economic Bonus. (Click here) Or institute a reverse income tax.
4. Free education (including post-grad) for everyone. Click here
5. Salary for attending school (Click here)
6. Eliminate corporate taxes (Click here)
7. Increase the standard income tax deduction annually Click here
8. Tax the very rich (.1%) more, with higher, progressive tax rates on all forms of income. (Click here)
9. Federal ownership of all banks (Click here and here)
10. Increase federal spending on the myriad initiatives that benefit America’s 99% (Click here)

The Ten Steps will add dollars to the economy, stimulate the economy, and narrow the income/wealth/power Gap between the rich and the rest.

Now, here is the ignorance part:

CBO report forecasts unsustainable debt in long term

The economy is sluggish but growing and inflation remains low, painting a decidedly mixed picture for the federal government, the Congressional Budget Office reported Tuesday, saying the fiscal situation is improving this year but will snap back by 2018 to swelling deficits and unsustainable debt.

The inflation rate is so low that Social Security beneficiaries probably won’t get a cost-of-living raise after this year, the CBO said. But tax revenue is up and spending has stayed pat (i.e. deficits are down), which is helping reduce the pool of red ink in the federal budget.

Combined, those numbers mean the government will run a deficit of $426 billion in fiscal year 2015, down about $60 billion from 2014 and marking the smallest deficit of President Obama’s tenure.

“The growth in debt is not sustainable,” CBO Director Keith Hall said in presenting the estimates. “At some point, it’s going to get to a very high level. Obviously, you can’t predict tipping points, but at some point this becomes a problem.”

CBO Director Keith Hall and President Obama are telling you several lies, which together form “The Big Lie”:

–Adding dollars to the economy (via spending) is bad for the economy
–Taking dollars out of the economy (via taxing) is good for the economy
–The federal debt is “unsustainable,” though what “unsustainable” means never is explained.
–All the data relating deficit reduction with recessions and depressions is meaningless
–There is no difference between the finances of our Monetarily Sovereign government vs. monetarily non-sovereign entities like you, me and local governments

Remember, President Obama is the man who brought us out of the Great Recession and grew the economy with increased deficit spending (aka “stimulus”). Now, he has reduced the deficit spending that saved us. He is leading us to another unnecessary, preventable recession — which probably will occur after he leaves office.

President Clinton did exactly the same thing: Reduced deficit spending, which caused a recession immediately after he left office. Clinton still boasts about that.

Democrats have called for tax hikes. New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie argues that (Social Security) needs benefit adjustments (i.e. cuts) to survive. Medicare and Medicaid, the government’s health care programs for the elderly and the poor, also are growing quickly.

And there you have it. The politicians, all of whom are supported and ruled by the rich, will cure the nonexistent “large deficit problem,” by cutting benefits to the middle and lower income groups (the “99%”) and by raising taxes, also on the 99%.

Thus, will the Gap between the rich and the rest grow — exactly what the rich want.

And the people never understand what is being done to them.

Rodger Malcolm Mitchell

%d bloggers like this: